This post is about a post that investigates and reports for the first time utilizing a non-GMO approach to alter the fermentation process of Pinot Noir wines. The authors experimentally demonstrated that certain dietary compounds possess histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibiting activity and can alter the wine characteristics by potentially altering yeast gene transcription, which was resulted from epigenetic effects. They have previously proposed the term “nutrifermentics” to represent this newly proposed field of research that provides insights on the effect of certain dietary compounds on microbial strains and their potential application in fermentation. This technological approach is a novel way to manipulate microorganisms for innovative food and beverage production with quality attributes catering for consumer’s needs. Using a multidisciplinary approach with an emphasis on food fermentation and biotechnology, this study will be substantially useful and of broad interest to food microbiologists and biotechnologists who seek for innovative concepts with real-world application potential.
Chitosan triggers actin remodelling and activation of defence genes that is repressed by calcium influx in grapevine cells
Fungal diseases of grapevine pose great challenges for global viticulture and require massive plant protection measures. Plant cells are able to sense chitin, a central component of fungal cell walls and respond by activation of basal defence. In this study the authors mapped early defence responses evoked by chitosan, a chitin fragment able to bind to chitin receptors. They found an activation of calcium influx, monitored by extracellular alkalinisation due to a co-transport of protons, remodelling of actin (but not of microtubules), and the activation of transcripts for phytoalexin synthesis, jasmonate-signalling, salicylate signalling, and chitinase. Interestingly, Gadolinium, an inhibitor of calcium influx, can inhibit extracellular alkalinisation in response to chitosan, while the induction of the phytoalexin synthesis transcripts was specifically promoted. In contrast, both DMSO and benzyl alcohol, compounds known to modulate membrane fluidity, partially inhibited the transcript responses to chitosan.
Hydrophobic Eutectic Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Applied to the Analysis of Pesticides in Wine
A green solvent-based DLLME/HPLC-MS method for the determination of 19 pesticides in wine samples has been developed. From the analysis of 11 commercial wines it was found that just in a bio sample the target compounds were not detectable or lower than quantification limit; as for the other samples, the most widespread and abundant pesticides were methoxyfenozide and boscalid, but their levels were much lower than the relative maximum residue levels.
The wine industry by-products: applications for food industry and health benefits
Each year, 20 million tons of wine by-products are generated, corresponding to 30% of the total quantity of vinified grapes. Wine by-products are a source of healthy bioactive molecules, such as polyphenols and other molecules (pigments, fibers, minerals, etc.). The abundance of bioactive compounds assures a promising future for nutritional foodstuff production. Wine by-products can be used to fortify aromatized waters and infusions, bread, pasta, dairy products, alcohol, sugary beverages, and processed foods. These innovative products are part of the Mediterranean Diet and are of great interest to both human and environmental health. Read more that http://science-and-wine.com/
Xylem anatomy and hydraulic traits in Vitis grafted cuttings in view of their impact on the young grapevine decline
Grapevine grafting is an essential practice in viticulture and over the years, various bench grafting techniques have been developed to mechanize the nursery process and to increase the yield in number of viable cuttings. Bench grafting is a fundamental nursery practice that can potentially affect the quality of propagation material also in young decline associated to grapevine trunk diseases and has been recently reported to influence leaf symptoms development associated with diseases of Esca complex. The study aimed to investigate how three bench grafting methods can influence these phenomena.
Integrating coordination mechanisms in the sustainability assessment of agri-food chains
From now on until our 3rd Science & Wine World Congress, on the first Sunday of each month, it will be published a post about Food Sustainability.
Today it will be about an interesting recent review written by Carlos Moreno-Miranda and Liesbeth Dries. In their paper entitled “Integrating coordination mechanisms in the sustainability assessment of agri-food chains: From a structured literature review to a comprehensive framework” they analyzed the state of the art in the assessment of agri-food supply chain sustainability based on a structured literature review.
Effect of the addition of soluble polysaccharides from red and white grape skins on the polyphenolic composition and sensory properties of Tempranillo red wines
This post summarizes the results of a study in which soluble polysaccharides from white and red grape skins were obtained to be evaluated as potential modulators of the unbalanced astringency of a Tempranillo red wine. The modulation of astringency was evaluated by a sensory panel, and it seemed to be related to the changes in the polyphenolic profile.
Economic and environmental sustainability of wine packaging systems
The main aim of the study summarized in this post was to perform a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of the most used wine packaging systems in Italy. Packaging plays a key role in food and beverage production and supply chain, but the increasing volume of packaging used causes many environmental concerns. The wine sector is no exception, especially in Italy that is the largest producer in the world. From both the environmental and economical point of views, aseptic cartons and bag-in-box systems were the most sustainable alternatives, while the glass systems had the worst global performances due to the high weight and consequent huge energy consumption during bottle production. The size of the containers was the key factor that most affected the results both in environmental and economic terms.
Improved sustainability in wine industry byproducts: a scale-up and economical feasibility study for high-value compounds extraction using modified SC-CO2
This post summarizes a study carried out with the aim of optimizing the operating conditions and to study the scale-up and the feasibility of the supercritical fluid extraction process for polyphenols from grape pomace, the main solid byproduct of the wine industry. An economic evaluation of the process indicated the feasibility of an industrial SFE plant with a capacity of 500 L for producing in 60 min an extract with an expected phenolics’ concentration of approximately 133 gGAE/kg extract at an estimated 67€ /kgextract cost of manufacturing. Notably, all values are better than those currently reported in the literature
A geospatial inventory of regulatory information for wine protected designations of origin in Europe
The Wine Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) label is a European quality scheme that protects high quality wines by linking them to legally defined geographic areas and a set of specific production practices. Because of the tight relation between PDO wines and the specifications defined in the official regulatory documents, these products are highly susceptible to changes in climatic, environmental, or socioeconomic conditions. However, the content of these regulatory documents has never been systematically analysed and summarized in a single dataset. Here, we present the first geospatial inventory that organizes regulatory information about the 1177 wine PDO in Europe based on the documents from the official EU geographical indication register.