High-density lipoproteins and Mediterranean Diet

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality and the study of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) particle composition and functionality has become a matter of high interest, particularly in light to the disappointing clinical data for HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) raising therapies in CVD secondary prevention and the lack of association between HDL-C and the risk of CVD. Recent evidences suggest that HDL composition and functionality could be modulated by diet. This post summarizes the conclusions of a systematic review that investigated the effect of Mediterranean diet (MD) on changes in HDL structure and functionality in humans. MD showed favorable effects on HDL functionality, particularly by improving HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and decreasing HDL oxidation. In addition, HDL composition and size were influenced by MD. Thus, MD is a protective factor against CVD associated with the improvement of HDL quality and the prevention of HDL dysfunctionality.

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Lasers for the Designation of Origin (PDO) and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and the detection of adulteration of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

This Mediterranean Diet post summarizes the results of a work in which Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and absorption spectroscopy aided by machine learning are employed for discriminating some extra virgin Greek olive oils of different olive cultivars for the first time. LIBS and absorption spectra of ex-tra virgin olive oils belonging to Kolovi and Koroneiki cultivars, as well as mix-tures of them, were collected, analyzed, and used to develop classification schemes employing Linear Discriminant Analysis and Gradient Boosting, the latter allowing the determination of the most important spectral features. Both algorithms were found to provide efficient classification of the olive oil spectra with accuracies ex-ceeding 90%. Furthermore, for the first time, the emission spectra of LIBS were fused with the absorption spectra to create predictive models and their accuracies were found to be significantly improved. This work demonstrates the enhanced ca-pabilities of LIBS and absorption spectroscopy and the potential of their combina-tion for olive oil quality monitoring and control.

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Olive pomace: how much do we know?

The Mediterranean area is responsible for about 98% of the olive oil worldwide production, with 900 million olive trees occupying 10 million hectares. However, the processing of 100 kg of olives leads to the production of 40 kg of wastes, mainly constituted by olive pomace, which is potentially recoverable as energetic or material source. In general, in the past 20 years, the exploitation of olive pomace has increased, but along with it, the need for further information about its chemical-physical characterization and the related hazard in industry. Thus, a risk analysis assessment was conducted and the results are summarized here.

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The Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or nuts modulates the expression of microRNAs transported by exosomes.

The relevance of lncRNAs and miRNAs in the regulation of different physiological and pathological conditions makes their therapeutic modulation a potentially viable tool to help treating different diseases. Here, the authors report data showing that exosome-transported lncRNAs and miRNAs can be modulated by specific dietary patterns, i.e., Mediterranean diets. Understanding the processes underlying the regulation of cell-to-cell communication, involving non-coding RNAs, may help developing novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat human diseases.

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Gastronomic cultural EVOOlution of the virgin olive oil consumption model at the restaurant: Un update

Post-covid customer will enter the restaurant with a new vision of the concept of hygiene, which must take on a reciprocal value of right / duty between customer and restaurateur. This is the right time to change the marketing of extra virgin olive oil at the restaurant, because extra virgin olive oil is an element that embodies the different aspects of the expected and perceptible quality of a food: taste, sensory, knowledge, sacredness, syncretism, health, history, naturalness and authenticity.

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Combined effect of Mediterranean diet and weight loss on clinical status in patients with inherited heart muscle disease (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy)

This post reposts the results of a study aimed to evaluate the impact of weight loss (WL) using a Mediterranean diet and mild-to-moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program, on clinical status of obese, symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The authors found that Mediterranean diet and aerobic exercise is associated with clinical-hemodynamic improvement in obese symptomatic HCM patients.

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Olive oil production and its impact on natural aquatic resources

Olive oil extraction processes generate significant quantities of wastes, olive mill solid waste, and olive mill wastewater, which are rich in precious compounds but toxic to the environment. In particular, olive mill wastewater is highly toxic. It is often discarded in water bodies without pre-treatment, causing severe problems for the aquatic environments. The search for new techniques to treat, transform and enhance them is a necessity, and thermal techniques such as flash pyrolysis and hydro-carbonization have proven their effectiveness. These techniques make it possible to transform these highly toxic effluents into a strategic compound with high added value, which constitutes a real additional source of benefits for farmers and extraction units, and ultimately a clean, green and sustainable olive oil production industry.

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Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols on Beta-Cell Function and Survival

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a major component of the Mediterranean diet and is appreciated worldwide because of its nutritional benefits in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). EVOO contains significant amounts of secondary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds (PCs), that may positively influence the metabolic status. This post reports a study where was investigated for the first time the effects of several PCs on beta-cell function and survival. The results show that hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and apigenin foster beta-cells’ health, suggesting that EVOO or supplements enriched with these compounds may improve insulin secretion and promote glycemic control in T2D patients.

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Potential Uses of Olive Oil Secoiridoids for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a combination of foods mainly rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients that have been shown to have many health-enhancing effects. Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important component of the MD. The importance of EVOO can be attributed to phenolic compounds, represented by phenolic alcohols, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, and to secoiridoids, which include oleocanthal, oleacein, oleuropein, and ligstroside. This post summarizes the most recent findings regarding the pharmacological properties, molecular targets, and action mechanisms of secoiridoids, focusing attention on their preventive and anti-cancer activities. The prospects for their possible use in human cancer prevention and treatment is also discussed.

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