Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the main fat consumed by populations in the Mediterranean basin, and phenolic compounds, minor components of this fat, are known to be responsible for diverse health benefits when consumed in a regular diet. According to numerous investigations, these benefits are mostly related to phenols such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol and secoiridoid derivatives such as ligstroside, oleuropein, oleocanthal and oleacein. These compounds are present in low concentrations, and for some of them, standards are not commercially available, hampering studies on the mechanisms underlying their biological activity. In order to contribute to a better knowledge of the bioactivity of these compounds and their metabolites, they must be available with high purity and in sufficient amounts for the assays. Chemical synthesis has been considered a convenient way to obtain these compounds. This Review will focus on the synthesis of representative VOO compounds, namely, ligstroside, oleuropein, oleocanthal, oleacein and analogues.
Effect of mannoproteins from different oenological yeast on pigment composition and color stability of red wine
In this work, MP-rich extracts from Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts were obtained by cell sonication and were characterized. The extracts were added to a red wine and color and pigment composition modifications were evaluated by CIELAB parameters and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively, after cold treatment (to provoke colloidal instability) and storage at room temperature (to accelerate wine aging). Results indicate that the MP-rich extracts showed differences in their composition and in the structure of the MPs depending on the yeast species. They also had different effects on the stability of wine pigments, being the extract obtained from Torulaspora delbrueckii the one that provided the best results, by contributing to the colloidal and chemical stability of the coloring matter. Wines added with this extract showed concentrations of p-coumaroylated and caffeoylated anthocyanins 33.40% higher than the control wine after 4 days of storage at 4 °C.
Extra Virgin Olive Oil: Thermal Effects vs Region of Cultivation
Extra virgin olive oil is one of the superlative due to its health benefits. In this work, the Fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from different olive growing regions of Pakistan and Al-Jouf region from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were obtained. The results demonstrated fluorescence spectroscopy as a quick, cost-effective and reliable approach to assess the quality and thermal stability of EVOO. These characteristics of fluorescence spectroscopy may lead to the development of portable device for the onsite monitoring of EVOO.
Pierce’s disease of grapevines caused by Xylella fastidiosa: what are the risks?
The vector-borne bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is responsible for Pierce’s disease (PD), a lethal grapevine disease that originated in the Americas. The international plant trade is expanding the geographic range of this pathogen, posing a new threat to viticulture worldwide. To assess the potential incidence of PD, the authors of this post built a dynamic epidemiological model based on the response of 36 grapevine varieties to the pathogen in inoculation assays and on the vectors’ distribution when this information is available.
Acceptance and rejection of nano-enabled viticulture
While the science of nanotechnology is indicated to offer improvements to conventional vineyard inputs and operations, its acceptability by potential users and consumers has an impact on the governance of nano-enabled agriculture. This governance takes place not just at the state level through regulation and policy, but also through corporate, and community sectors’ use of branding and narratives about nanotechnology and nano-based agrichemicals, and the (non)consumption of nano-enabled products. This post reports the results of a paper which investigated the technical and market acceptability, or governance, of nanotechnology by elucidating the attitudes of industry gatekeepers towards wines grown with nanotechnology. This necessarily informs the ‘market permissibility’ of such technologies and illuminates sensitivities, concerns, and consumer-based barriers to adoption.
Winemaking needs more science knowledge
Carbonic maceration (CM) consists in placing intact grape bunches into a sealed tank to have a natural or artificially created carbon dioxide atmosphere. No articles have been published on the comparison between CM and nitrogen maceration (NM). Therefore, the present study aimed at testing the use of alternative maceration technique (NM) in alternative to CM, to create the conditions of anoxia on the Gamay variety.
Agrobiodiversity dynamics in a French wine-growing region
Agrobiodiversity is a promising nature-based solution in the pursuit of sustainable agriculture. In wine-growing systems, commercial pressure and varietal regulations have narrowed agrobiodiversity in vineyards despite higher diversity being an important buffer against the effects of climate change. If drivers of grape diversity change are well-understood at national to global scales, little is known about the local, past or anticipated trajectories that drive agrobiodiversity dynamics depending on growers’ cultural values, practices and choices. We combined quantitative agricultural census data and qualitative ethnographic approaches to characterise changes in the diversity of grape varieties from 1960 to 2020 at the communal and vineyard levels in a French wine-growing region, and to decipher the drivers of change
High adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with higher physical fitness
Although prior research has synthesized the relationships between the Mediterranean diet (MD) and components of physical fitness (PF) in adults, they are limited and inconclusive. This post reports the results of a study aimed to synthesize the associations between high (compared with low) MD adherence and PF levels with each of its components (cardiorespiratory, motor, and musculoskeletal) in adulthood.
Grapevine association mapping: a genetic approach with successful findings
Thanks to current advances in sequencing technologies, novel bioinformatics tools, and efficient modeling solutions, association mapping has become a widely accepted approach to unravel the link between genotype and phenotype diversity in numerous crops. In grapevine, this strategy has been used in the last decades to understand the genetic basis of traits of agronomic interest (fruit quality, crop yield, biotic and abiotic resistance), of special relevance nowadays to improve crop resilience to cope with future climate scenarios. This post summarizes current applications of association mapping in grapevine research and discusses future prospects in view of current viticulture challenges.
Is there a mutual methodology among Life Cycle Assessment studies in the wine supply chain?
When talking about environmental and sustainability topics, the wine sector plays a fundamental role ensuring that wine remains not only economically but also environmentally sustainable, hence the importance of conducting analyses to measure the impact of food production through Life Cycle Assessment tool.