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Importance of Olive Oil in health and nutrition

Olive trees (Olea europaea L.) are found in all landscapes surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, including Spain, Italy, Greece, and northern South Africa. Olive oil is a globally recognized symbol of all cultures present in this geographical area and is a testament to the harmonious relationship between the land and its inhabitants. Olive oil obtained directly from olives, the fruit of olive trees, has played a fundamental role in the history and culture of humanity for centuries. In ancient Greece, it was a symbol of a high social status. The wealthy used olive oil for cooking, lighting, and medicinal purposes. Most Greek doctors believed that it had therapeutic properties. Hippocrates mentioned/registered more than 60 uses from treating wounds to burns. Even Greek athletes would anoint themselves with olive oil before competing, and the winners would receive a large amount as a reward [1]. During the Roman Empire, olive oil gained immense importance not only as a food item, but also for body care, cosmetics, lighting, and medicine. Interestingly, Hispania exported more than 30 million amphorae of olive oil. Most of this olive oil was produced in Andalusia, a region located south of the Iberian Peninsula. Therefore, it can be said that, in ancient times, those who possessed olive oil were considered to have a treasure not only for its economic value but also for its nutritional and therapeutic benefits. As a result, it has been passed down through generations and is still highly valued in modern civilization [1].

This “golden liquid” has also contributed to the establishment of a healthy dietary pattern known as the Mediterranean Diet (MD). The polyphenols present in olive oil, particularly extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that olive oil consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular conditions, obesity, cancer, and even neurodegenerative disorders. The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED) study is a Spanish clinical trial that aimed to explore the preventive effects of MD on cardiovascular and aging-related disorders. The results of this study have demonstrated that this particular dietary pattern, which is rich in olive oil, reduces the incidence of these disorders and even delays cognitive decline, leading to an increase in longevity [2,3]. PREDIMED has demonstrated that the administration of olive oil in the context of MD consumption in patients and animal models reduced the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL), resulting in protection from the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) that, following MD, was approximately 31% lower compared to a control diet [4]. Furthermore, a meta-analysis found a protective role of olive oil consumption in the reduction of the relative risk of CVDs for an intake of > 20 g/day olive oil. In particular, there was a dose-dependent reduction of 4% for every 5 g/day increase in olive oil consumption [4]. In the same context, the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention (CORDIOPREV) study was a long-term randomized trial that compared the effects of a MD enriched in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on the incidence of cardiovascular events. These results demonstrate that a diet enriched with olive oil has a greater preventive effect against CVDs [5]. In contrast, the MICOIL pilot study compared the effect of Greek High Phenolic Early Harvest Extra Virgin Olive Oil (HP-EH-EVOO) versus Moderate Phenolic (MP-EVOO) and MD in people with mild cognitive impairment. They concluded that long-term intervention with HP-EH-EVOO or MP-EVOO was associated with a significant improvement in cognitive function compared with MD, delaying the prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders [6].

Given the significant historical importance and growing scientific evidence supporting the health benefits of olive oil, it is crucial to further investigate the metabolomics underlying its nutritional value. Metabolomics, the comprehensive examination of metabolites within a biological system, provides a unique perspective on the intricate biochemical processes influenced by olive oil consumption. By exploring the metabolomic profile of olive oil, especially EVOO, scientists can identify compounds responsible for its protective effects against various diseases. The rich history of olive oil is now being complemented by cutting-edge research, which has revealed its complex biochemical composition and significant impact on human health. The continuation of this research not only reaffirms the cultural and historical importance of olive oil but also solidifies its role as a cornerstone of nutritional science and preventive medicine. This narrative review aims to emphasize these metabolomic insights, offering a deeper understanding of why olive oil has been and continues to be, a treasured component of human civilization.

Introduction to Metabolomics

The concept of “metabolomics” was defined for the first time in 1999, as “the quantitative measurement of the dynamic multiparametric metabolic response of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modification”[7]. The main scope of omics science is to study the function and interaction of a vast quantity of biological data, with the aim of comprehending their contribution to human health. It provides an overview of the metabolic status and global biochemical events associated with a cellular or biological system, focusing on the study of hundreds of metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids [8]. Spectroscopic analysis of different biosamples has been employed in metabolomics studies to collect metabolites based on specific phenotypes such as illness, condition, or exposure to treatment [9]. In the context of food and nutrition, nutrimetabolomics (or nutritional/food metabolomics) is a new concept related to nutritional science, and it is crucial to decode the link between diet and health [10]. This has significantly impacted food research, improving the sensitivity demanded by the existing food quality/safety legislation, as industry and society demand the identification of the real effect of diet on human health. It has also opened new opportunities for biomarker food intake discovery and identification of new metabolite biomarkers in body fluids following the consumption of various foods, ingredients, meals, or diets [11].

A biomarker is defined as an “objective measure used to characterize the current condition of a biological system.” [12]. Considering this concept, it is imperative to highlight the importance of biological interpretation of results obtained in metabolomic studies. It can be challenging to ascertain the suitability of certain metabolites as reliable biomarkers. Some metabolites, despite being present in the diet, are normally produced by humans, which makes it difficult to determine whether the levels found in both plasma and urine are related to consumption or endogenous production. Nevertheless, thousands of diverse polyphenolic compounds, organic acids, and terpenoids have the advantage of not being synthesized in mammals, only in a given plant or plant family, and cannot be degraded by human enzymes, being the only substrate of different fermentative bacteria that produce degradative substances found in urine and blood. Therefore, these compounds can be regarded as credible biomarkers [8].

Nutrimetabolomics plays a fundamental role in associating food compounds with health outcomes by providing a comprehensive overview of the metabolic status of a biological system and identifying key biomarkers linked to dietary patterns and health. However, it is fundamental to be aware of the complexity of the process, since the concentration of many metabolites is given as “relative levels,” and it is complicated to establish a direct connection between these metabolites and the health condition.

Olive Oil Metabolomics

Metabolites present in olive oil have been the subject of extensive research, owing to their fundamental relevance to health. Studies have identified clear benefits of this important component of MD in protecting against chronic and degenerative diseases, which can be attributed to its metabolites [13]. Olive oil extraction involves collection, cleaning, extraction, separation, centrifugation, storage and packaging. However, to obtain higher-quality oil, virgin olive oil (VOO), no heat or chemicals can be used, because it is directly obtained from the olive only through mechanical processes under specific thermal conditions that do not cause alterations. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and has an acidity level of ≤ 2 g/100 g [14,15]. EVOO has the highest quality and lowest acidity level of 0.8 g per 100 g [15]. The main components of olive oil are triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols and, in a reduced percentage, there are highly bioactive minor compounds (Figure 1) [16].

Figure 1. Graphical representation of olive oil components. MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid.

Techniques used for metabolite profiling and evolution.

Metabolite profiling allows for the identification and quantification of metabolites. To prepare samples, the compounds of interest must normally be isolated from the matrix through chromatographic separation, and detection is performed using mass spectrometry (MS) or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy [71]. Analysis of the different components of olive oil, particularly VOO, is essential, considering that this field allows for the discernment of potential adulteration with other vegetable oils, characterization of bioactive minor compounds, and detection of metabolites of pesticide residues, thus evaluating the overall safety of olive oil [72].

Metabolite analysis has evolved significantly over the years, from basic techniques such as chromatography to advanced methods such as MS and NMR spectroscopy. Therefore, a timeline for techniques used for phenolic compound analysis can be established. In 1973, the Folin-Ciocalteu method was commonly used to determine the total phenolic content in a sample, but it was modified because a purification step via paper chromatography or thin layer chromatography (TLC) was added (Figure 2) [73]. This method involves the reaction of polyphenols with a redox agent, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, which leads to the formation of a blue complex that can be accurately measured and quantified using visible light spectroscopy [74]. In the 80’s and the early 90’s, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with MS emerged as new approaches for the analysis and separation of these compounds. In general, HPLC methods are more efficient owing to the utilization of ultraviolet detection and the fact that they do not require chemical or physical modifications of the compounds before quantification. High-resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC) was developed in 1987 (Figure 2) [73].

For the unsaponifiable components, different approaches took place in the late 90’s and the early 2000s depending on whether the compound of interest was a hydrocarbon, carotene, tocopherol, linear and triterpenic alcohol, 4-methylsterol, sterol, or sterol oxidation product. Nevertheless, a saponification step, followed by TLC, was common to all components and allowed the separation of the different types. GC or HPLC can be used for hydrocarbons, although the latter separates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which originate from environmental pollution, from other hydrocarbons more efficiently. HPLC is preferred for carotenoids because GC degrades them. Tocopherols were often eluted with other compounds in TLC and were then analysed as trimethylsilyl derivatives in non-capillary GC columns (cGC). cGC has also been used for linear and triterpenic alcohols; however, it is difficult to separate them by TLC because of their higher polarity. In fact, cGC was used for both 4-methylsterols and sterols, although TLC could separate sterols into two bands, one corresponding to 7-sterols and the other to 5-sterols. Finally, analysis of sterol oxidation products focused on cholesterol, whose separation occurred through cold saponification and enrichment by silica or aminopropyl solid-phase extraction. Among these compounds, cGC offers better results than HPLC [75].

Currently, metabolomics can be targeted or untargeted. The first involves methods that determine a particular group of metabolites of interest, whereas the second involves measuring the maximum number of metabolites without focusing on any particular group [76]. MS and NMR are the two main types of spectroscopy used for metabolite profiling. Some crucial advantages of MS are its high sensitivity and resolution, which allow the visualization of chemical diversity over a wide dynamic range. Furthermore, it enables the determination of the molecular weight and structure of unknown compounds. However, in NMR, there is no need to pre-select the conditions to perform the analysis, which permits the generation of spectra with a high information content. Moreover, this technique allows easy quantification of metabolites and NMR chemical shifts are relatively stable, which guarantees that the results are reproducible under consistent experimental conditions (Figure 2) [77].

MS uses a mass spectrometer to measure the masses of different molecules in a sample of interest. This process focuses on specific signals, such as the ion current generated by molecules of a selected and specific mass. The detector in the mass spectrometer senses the relative differences in these signals, manifested as peaks or drops, and calculates them as the response ratios. These ratios are determined by comparing the chromatographical changes with the baseline signal [78].  Several analytical tools can be used for MS-based metabolomics, such as liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to MS (LC-MS), two-dimensional LC coupled to MS (LCxLC-MS), GC coupled to MS (GC-MS), two-dimensional GC coupled to MS (GCxGC-MS), direct infusion with MS (DI-MS), which involves the direct introduction of the sample into the mass spectrometer, and capillary electrophoresis coupled with MS (CE-MS) [76].

Chromatography allows the separation of compounds into two distinct phases: stationary and mobile. Retention of these compounds in the stationary phase results in a lower velocity of movement through the chromatographic system [79]. In LC-MS, the mobile phase is a liquid, as in TLC and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), although TLC uses capillary forces, and CEC uses electroosmotic flow. The stationary phase in LC-MS can be liquid (liquid-liquid chromatography) or solid (liquid-solid chromatography). In general, liquid chromatography (LC) can be divided into four categories. First, normal-phase LC uses an absorbent material in the stationary phase, which is highly polar and has a relatively nonpolar mobile phase. In reverse-phase LC, the stationary phase is nonpolar, and the mobile phase is polar. Additionally, in ion-exchange LC, the analyte interacts with the stationary phase because of the ionic interactions that result in retention in the column. Finally, size-exclusion LC involves separation based on size; molecules with larger sizes do not penetrate the porous material of the stationary phase and move faster [80].

LC-MS allows the detection and analysis of phenolic compounds and unsaponifiable components and is faster than GC-MS because it does not require derivatization prior to analysis. It is possible to integrate ionization methods that can aid in the simultaneous examination of numerous classes of metabolites. Electrospray ionization (ESI) does not allow additional extraction steps in LC-ESI-MS. Nevertheless, when required, the extraction of metabolites is a fundamental step that constitutes pretreatment and can be of distinct types, including liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-liquid microextraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and solid-phase extraction [76].

GC can have a liquid or solid stationary phase that influences the appearance of the system. In a GC with a liquid stationary phase, the system consists of a lengthy capillary covered with a thin layer of a relatively viscous liquid or, alternatively, a polymer with liquid-like properties. A GC with a solid stationary phase uses a capillary featuring a thin porous layer on its walls or columns filled with porous particles [80].

GC-MS allows the separation and analysis of organic compounds, fatty acids, and fatty acid alkyl esters in olive oil, which are either volatile or semi-volatile. To obtain volatile compounds, chemical derivatization can be performed prior to analysis, which increases the thermal stability, sensitivity, volatility, and detector-response. Ionization methods that are also used in LC-MS, such as electron and chemical ionization, can be applied. There are several methods for sample pretreatment, including solid-phase microextraction (SPME), dynamic headspace sorptive extraction combined with thermal desorption, purge and trap extraction, and solvent-assisted flavour evaporation. SPME can be performed through headspace or liquid sampling, with the former being the most common method for analysing olive oil metabolites because it allows a valuable level of automation and repeatability. GC-MS excels in overcoming the challenges commonly associated with LC-MS, such as matrix effects and ion suppression arising from co-eluting compounds, and it is able to provide superior chromatographic resolution. Nonetheless, this technique has a significant limitation in that it is primarily applicable for the separation and analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds [76].

CE-MS allows the profiling of polar ionized and ionizable metabolites and offers several advantages, such as the possibility of utilizing small samples and decreased reagent volumes, minimal or no organic solvent consumption, and the use of simple fused silica capillaries instead of expensive LC columns. Therefore, this study presents a sustainable and cost-effective analytical technique [54].

NMR spectroscopy is an analytical technique based on the principles of nuclear spin physics. This technique exploits the inherent magnetic properties of the atomic nuclei. In fact, it operates on the assumption that nuclei with either an odd mass number (number of protons + number of electrons) or nuclei with an even mass number, but an odd atomic number generate a tiny magnetic field. They are characterized by the presence of a property called nuclear spin, a form of angular momentum, and a nuclear spin quantum number (I). For atoms whose nuclei have odd mass numbers, I assumes half-integer values such as 1/2 or 3/2, whereas for atoms with even mass numbers and odd atomic numbers, I takes integer values. These atoms generate a magnetic field that interacts with the significant external magnetic field created by the NMR instrument, allowing researchers to study these atoms and their properties. Furthermore, atoms with I=1/2, such as hydrogen (1H) or carbon-13 (13C), result in clear signals in the NMR spectrum, which are often used in food science. NMR can be either 1D or 2D, with the latter being a better option for complex mixtures [81]. In the context of olive oil, 1H NMR has proven to be a valuable tool for understanding the details of lipid classes as well as the composition of fatty acids, several bioactive minor compounds, and levels of unsaturation, whereas 13C NMR has provided distinctive insights into the arrangement of fatty acids on the glycerol moiety and the stereochemical aspects of unsaturation. In general, no sample pretreatment is required for these methods. However, their effectiveness is not consistently high, particularly when attempting to quantify certain minor compounds such as mono-or diacylglycerols [82].

The evolution of metabolite profiling techniques has been instrumental in improving our ability to characterize a complex mixture of compounds found in olive oil and has provided valuable insights into the factors that contribute to its unique flavour and nutritional properties.

Challenges and future directions

Metabolomics involvement in nutrition and food production remains relatively unexplored. Its primary application lies in defining the composition of the VOO and EVOO compounds to facilitate commercialization. However, defining metabolomic properties is time-consuming and prone to errors, necessitating standardized techniques [76].

A critical point concerns the processing methods used to produce olive oil, such as the extraction techniques and storage conditions. This could influence the chemical composition and bioactivity of olive oil as well as its metabolic profile. Future studies can have an important role in the investigation of the effects of different processing methods on the metabolomic profile of olive oil and its health-promoting properties. Understanding how processing factors affect the stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds can guide industrial practices to produce high-quality olive oil with maximum health benefits [95].

Metabolomics definitions are particularly useful for quality control and authentication. Metabolomic changes in response to an individual’s pathophysiological status, interactions with the environment, and genetic alterations are important factors for the evaluation of individual health assessments. Consequently, the significance of defining metabolomic composition stems from the importance of different compounds in individual health [76].

“Foodomics” examines the combination of food and nutrition using techniques typical of “-omics” sciences. A typical workflow involves sampling the nutritional source, preparing an extract containing the known or unknown metabolites of interest, identifying the sample, and acquiring data. In olive oil foodomics, studying metabolites through a -omic approach helps to identify phenols and other relevant compounds [76].

The identification of metabolites involves the use of several methods that were previously mentioned. MS is the most used technique to identify targeted and untargeted metabolites and coupled with GC permits to identify volatile compounds. Specific purification assays, instead, are essential for targeted metabolites, whereas untargeted metabolites yield a diverse range of compounds and require appropriate statistical analyses. Principal component analysis represents often the first attempt of analysis in this case [76,96]. Various other techniques, such as UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS, have been employed to identify compounds in olive oil, aiding the authenticity evaluation [76].

The challenge in applying these techniques lies in the need to combine different methodologies to profile metabolites, and each technique presents its own set of difficulties. Furthermore, analysing these compounds is challenging owing to their chemical diversity, variable concentrations, and enormous amounts of data generated from larger analyses, particularly untargeted ones [96].

Despite the difficulties in applying these methods and the need for workflows that are as standardized as possible, olive oil metabolomics is a promising area for future research. Metabolomics offers a transdisciplinary approach for studying metabolites present in olive oil. It involves analytical chemistry, chemometrics, and bioinformatics to comprehensively understand olive oil’s metabolome [97]. The approaches and methodologies applied varied depending on the purpose of the study. For example, Single-Class Methodologies focus on specific classes of compounds such as phenolic compounds, pentacyclic triterpenes, tocopherols, and phytosterols. They involve sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and detection using LC-MS or GC-MS. Multi-Class Approaches aim to simultaneously analyse multiple classes of compounds in olive oil. They offer a comprehensive view of olive oil composition and are becoming increasingly popular in metabolomic studies [96].

In this context, integrated approaches combining metabolomics with other disciplines and longitudinal studies are needed to gain deeper insights into the health impacts of olive oil and to address challenges such as authenticity and quality assurance.

In recent years, a novel technique for metabolite profiling and analysis of their involvement in metabolic pathways has emerged: metabolic flux analysis (MFA). This method includes two common approaches, which are flux balance analysis (FBA) and 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C MFA). While the former involves modelling metabolic reactions as a set of linear equations, the later uses 13C-labeled substrates combined either with MS or NMR spectroscopy to analyse isotopic labelling patterns [98]. To our knowledge, MFA has not yet been applied in any studies assessing the health benefits of olive oil. Nevertheless, we believe that it could be crucial to help the scientific community better understand the pathways that the bioactive compounds of this fundamental ingredient of olive oil enters in the human body.

Conducting longitudinal studies to track the changes in metabolic profiles over time in response to olive oil consumption can provide valuable insights into its long-term health effects. By analysing metabolomic data at multiple time points, researchers can identify biomarkers associated with olive oil intake and their impact on various physiological processes such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism, as described previously [99].

Integrating metabolomics with other –omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics should offer a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the health effects of olive oil. By correlating changes in metabolite levels with genetic variation, gene expression patterns, and protein profiles, researchers can identify novel pathways and biological targets influenced by olive oil consumption.

Future research on olive oil metabolomics can also employ nutrigenomic approaches to investigate how genetic variation affects individual responses to olive oil consumption through the identification of gene-diet interactions. Thus, it is possible to personalize dietary recommendations and optimize health outcomes based on genetic profiles.

Another important aspect is the implementation of clinical trials downstream of the study and development process for olive oil metabolomics. This would allow the health potential of longitudinal studies and meta-analyses to be directly highlighted, thereby capturing the real purpose of these studies to have an impact on human health. As previously mentioned, the PREDIMED trial demonstrated that the daily consumption of 50 g or more of polyphenol rich EVOO, as part of MD, could reduce CVD morbidity and mortality in high-risk individuals [100]. Several other sub-studies within PREDIMED have analysed plasma metabolites related to CVD risk and EVOO consumption. Among the metabolites analysed, ceramide was associated with CVD prevention after 7.4 years of treatment, demonstrating the modulation of the risk of disease. Another clinical trial regarding the role of VOO in HDL functionality reported the impact of some metabolites (i.e., phenolic compounds) of VOO on HDL triacylglycerol levels. Finally, a postprandial clinical trial involving the consumption of 40 mL of EVOO rich in oleocanthal demonstrated the anti-aggregation properties of the olive oil metabolite [97]. Postprandial studies are interesting investigations that explore the post-meal metabolomic response to olive oil consumption, revealing differences in serum metabolite profiles compared to other edible oils. Such studies have highlighted the potential of metabolomics to distinguish between different oil types and to understand their physiological effects.

In summary, future research on olive oil metabolomics should adopt integrated approaches, including longitudinal studies, -omics technologies, nutrigenomics analyses, and clinical trials to comprehensively understand its health impacts. By unravelling the complex interplay among olive oil metabolites, genetic factors, and processing methods, researchers can advance our knowledge of the health-promoting properties of olive oil and provide evidence-based dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management.

In conclusion, although evidence supports the metabolic effects of olive oil consumption, further research using standardized methodologies is required to better understand the specific metabolites and mechanisms underlying their beneficial properties.


Olive tree and olive oil, one of its derivative products, hold significant cultural, historical, and nutritional importance across the Mediterranean region and beyond. Olive oil has transcended its role as a culinary ingredient, and has become a symbol of tradition, health, and prosperity. Modern scientific research has shed light on the numerous health benefits of olive oil consumption, particularly in an MD context. Studies have consistently demonstrated its role in reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVDs, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions. The rich composition of olive oil, which includes MUFA, polyphenols, and vitamins, contributes to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, favouring its role as a protective agent against a wide spectrum of disorders.

Furthermore, the emerging field of “nutrimetabolomics” offers promising avenues for understanding the intricate relationships between olive oil components and human health. By analysing the metabolic response to olive oil consumption, researchers have aimed to identify specific biomarkers and mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects. This interdisciplinary approach involves collaboration among medical professionals, data analysts, nutritionists, and analytical chemists to unravel the complexities of nutritional metabolomics in the context of translational research.

Metabolite analysis techniques have played a pivotal role in comprehensively understanding olive oil and its diverse compounds. The versatility of targeted and untargeted metabolomics has broadened the scope of analysis, allowing for a more nuanced understanding of the chemical composition of olive oil and its potential health implications. MS, with its sensitivity and structural elucidation capabilities, along with NMR and its associated reproducibility and information-rich spectra, have become indispensable tools for metabolite profiling. Chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and GC have facilitated the separation and quantification of various compounds, enhancing our ability to explore the health-promoting properties of olive oil. These techniques have overcome challenges, such as matrix effects and ion suppression, providing superior resolution and sensitivity, particularly in the analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds.

The application of advanced analytical methods has led to significant discoveries regarding the bioavailability, metabolism, and health effects of phenolic compounds in olive oil, identifying potential biomarkers, elucidating metabolic pathways, and highlighting the role of olive oil in human health. However, differences in the experimental design and analytical methods across studies make it challenging to identify the specific metabolites responsible for the observed health benefits.

Metabolomic studies in the realm of nutrition and food, particularly concerning olive oil, are still relatively nascent but hold significant promise. Although their primary application currently revolves around delineating the composition of VOO and EVOO compounds for commercial purposes, there is growing recognition of their potential in broader contexts. The concept of “foodomics” integrates metabolomic approaches to identify relevant compounds in olive oil, aiding authenticity assessment and quality assurance.

Having said that, challenges persist in applying metabolomic methodologies, including the need for standardized workflows, the integration of diverse techniques, and the management of vast datasets generated by comprehensive analyses.

In conclusion, combining metabolomics with other “-omics” technologies, conducting longitudinal studies, and employing nutrigenomic approaches can provide deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the health effects of olive oil consumption.

Read all at: Gonçalves, M.; Rodríguez-Pérez, M.; Calabrò, A.; Burgos-Ramos, E.; Accardi, G.; Silva, P. A Narrative Review of Metabolomic Insights into Olive Oil’s Nutritional Value. Appl. Sci. 2024, 14, 4203. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14104203

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