Increasing the use of mechanized grape harvesting

Due to the low number of employees and the time limit in the field of grape harvesting, the authors presented in this post the results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of the deployment of an outboard grape harvester within the conditions of Slovak viticulture. The post evaluates the dependence of the use of mechanized harvesting on changes in the purchase price of grapes (increasing it also exponentially increases the required area) and on changing the hourly wage of an employee (increasing it degressively reduces the required area). From the results it can be said that statistically and economically significant outputs were achieved for the deployment of machine collection.

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Lasers for the Designation of Origin (PDO) and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and the detection of adulteration of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

This Mediterranean Diet post summarizes the results of a work in which Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and absorption spectroscopy aided by machine learning are employed for discriminating some extra virgin Greek olive oils of different olive cultivars for the first time. LIBS and absorption spectra of ex-tra virgin olive oils belonging to Kolovi and Koroneiki cultivars, as well as mix-tures of them, were collected, analyzed, and used to develop classification schemes employing Linear Discriminant Analysis and Gradient Boosting, the latter allowing the determination of the most important spectral features. Both algorithms were found to provide efficient classification of the olive oil spectra with accuracies ex-ceeding 90%. Furthermore, for the first time, the emission spectra of LIBS were fused with the absorption spectra to create predictive models and their accuracies were found to be significantly improved. This work demonstrates the enhanced ca-pabilities of LIBS and absorption spectroscopy and the potential of their combina-tion for olive oil quality monitoring and control.

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Is the second-cheapest wine a rip-off?

The second-cheapest bottle on a restaurant wine list is widely thought to be priced to exploit naïve diners embarrassed to choose the cheapest option. This post it is a summary of an investigation whether this behavioral theory holds empirically. The authors find that the mark-up on the second-cheapest wine is significantly below that on the four next most expensive wines. It is therefore an urban myth that the second-cheapest wine is an especially bad buy.

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Total faecal proanthocyanidins as intake biomarker? A first exploration

Proanthocyanidins are a class of dietary phenolic compounds, present in foods or beverages such as berries, legumes, wine, cocoa and derived products or nuts. Due to the health benefits associated with proanthocyanidins, it is useful to identify dietary proanthocyanidin biomarkers that can be determined by simple methods. Since increased levels of circulating PA metabolites are associated with increased faecal proanthocyanidin content, this study explores the spectrophotometric measurement of faecal proanthocyanidin content and its use as a biomarker of proanthocyanidin intake.

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Olive pomace: how much do we know?

The Mediterranean area is responsible for about 98% of the olive oil worldwide production, with 900 million olive trees occupying 10 million hectares. However, the processing of 100 kg of olives leads to the production of 40 kg of wastes, mainly constituted by olive pomace, which is potentially recoverable as energetic or material source. In general, in the past 20 years, the exploitation of olive pomace has increased, but along with it, the need for further information about its chemical-physical characterization and the related hazard in industry. Thus, a risk analysis assessment was conducted and the results are summarized here.

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Red Wine and Longevity

The main conclusions of the study summarized in this post is that the moderate consumption of wine augments the expression of the key genes associated with longevity, such as p53, sirtuin-1, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in humans. Furthermore, it significantly augments the expression of genes associated with longevity, as well as the life span of flies, which shows that the effects apply to the entire animal kingdom. Lastly, no unwanted secondary effects were observed.

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Cannonau: the wine of centenarians. A spectroscopic data fusion approach for the study of the polyphenol content

Infrared spectroscopy is widely applied in the wine sector. The medium infrared (MIR) spectral region between 1800 and 900 cm-1 is very informative for polyphenols. The authors caaried out a work aimed to perform an in-depth analysis of this spectral region of polyphenolic wine extracts. To this goal evolution of the polyphenolic fractions of white (Vermentino) and red (Cannonau) typical Sardinian wines was studied during wine-making.

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The Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or nuts modulates the expression of microRNAs transported by exosomes.

The relevance of lncRNAs and miRNAs in the regulation of different physiological and pathological conditions makes their therapeutic modulation a potentially viable tool to help treating different diseases. Here, the authors report data showing that exosome-transported lncRNAs and miRNAs can be modulated by specific dietary patterns, i.e., Mediterranean diets. Understanding the processes underlying the regulation of cell-to-cell communication, involving non-coding RNAs, may help developing novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat human diseases.

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Handling wine pomace: The importance of drying to preserve phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity for product valorization

Four different wine grape pomaces (GP) (Vitis vinifera) varieties, Auxerrois, Pinot Blanc, Gamay and Pinot Noir, and obtained from white, rosé or red wine vinification, were considered for possible valorization in food supplement industry. The results reinforce the importance of drying of GP as a pretreatment, which otherwise could result in significant product degradation. Additionally, we propose white and rosé GP as more interesting sources for valorization, with higher phenolic content, compared to red wine GP.

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Mycotoxins in red wine: Occurrence and risk assessment

Mycological contamination of food products is a common problem in the food industry, associated with implications for consumer health. Red wine is regarded as an alcoholic beverage with health benefits, notably for the circulatory system. However, in spite of its health-promoting properties, it can also be a source of toxic substances. Wine is a documented source of ochratoxin A, which is one of the ubiquitous, highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi. It is the only mycotoxin for which a regulatory maximum level in wine has been established. There are no legal regulations on the content of other mycotoxins in wine, as a product with an increased risk of mycological contamination, and so their levels are not monitored. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON) as well as T-2 and HT-2 toxins in dry red wines.

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