Agrobiodiversity dynamics in a French wine-growing region

Agrobiodiversity is a promising nature-based solution in the pursuit of sustainable agriculture. In wine-growing systems, commercial pressure and varietal regulations have narrowed agrobiodiversity in vineyards despite higher diversity being an important buffer against the effects of climate change. If drivers of grape diversity change are well-understood at national to global scales, little is known about the local, past or anticipated trajectories that drive agrobiodiversity dynamics depending on growers’ cultural values, practices and choices. We combined quantitative agricultural census data and qualitative ethnographic approaches to characterise changes in the diversity of grape varieties from 1960 to 2020 at the communal and vineyard levels in a French wine-growing region, and to decipher the drivers of change

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High adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with higher physical fitness

Although prior research has synthesized the relationships between the Mediterranean diet (MD) and components of physical fitness (PF) in adults, they are limited and inconclusive. This post reports the results of a study aimed to synthesize the associations between high (compared with low) MD adherence and PF levels with each of its components (cardiorespiratory, motor, and musculoskeletal) in adulthood.

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Grapevine association mapping: a genetic approach with successful findings

Thanks to current advances in sequencing technologies, novel bioinformatics tools, and efficient modeling solutions, association mapping has become a widely accepted approach to unravel the link between genotype and phenotype diversity in numerous crops. In grapevine, this strategy has been used in the last decades to understand the genetic basis of traits of agronomic interest (fruit quality, crop yield, biotic and abiotic resistance), of special relevance nowadays to improve crop resilience to cope with future climate scenarios. This post summarizes current applications of association mapping in grapevine research and discusses future prospects in view of current viticulture challenges.

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Is there a mutual methodology among Life Cycle Assessment studies in the wine supply chain?

When talking about environmental and sustainability topics, the wine sector plays a fundamental role ensuring that wine remains not only economically but also environmentally sustainable, hence the importance of conducting analyses to measure the impact of food production through Life Cycle Assessment tool.

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Epigenetic Changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alters the Aromatic Profile in Alcoholic Fermentation

This post is about a post that investigates and reports for the first time utilizing a non-GMO approach to alter the fermentation process of Pinot Noir wines. The authors experimentally demonstrated that certain dietary compounds possess histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibiting activity and can alter the wine characteristics by potentially altering yeast gene transcription, which was resulted from epigenetic effects. They have previously proposed the term “nutrifermentics” to represent this newly proposed field of research that provides insights on the effect of certain dietary compounds on microbial strains and their potential application in fermentation. This technological approach is a novel way to manipulate microorganisms for innovative food and beverage production with quality attributes catering for consumer’s needs. Using a multidisciplinary approach with an emphasis on food fermentation and biotechnology, this study will be substantially useful and of broad interest to food microbiologists and biotechnologists who seek for innovative concepts with real-world application potential.

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Chitosan triggers actin remodelling and activation of defence genes that is repressed by calcium influx in grapevine cells

Fungal diseases of grapevine pose great challenges for global viticulture and require massive plant protection measures. Plant cells are able to sense chitin, a central component of fungal cell walls and respond by activation of basal defence. In this study the authors mapped early defence responses evoked by chitosan, a chitin fragment able to bind to chitin receptors. They found an activation of calcium influx, monitored by extracellular alkalinisation due to a co-transport of protons, remodelling of actin (but not of microtubules), and the activation of transcripts for phytoalexin synthesis, jasmonate-signalling, salicylate signalling, and chitinase. Interestingly, Gadolinium, an inhibitor of calcium influx, can inhibit extracellular alkalinisation in response to chitosan, while the induction of the phytoalexin synthesis transcripts was specifically promoted. In contrast, both DMSO and benzyl alcohol, compounds known to modulate membrane fluidity, partially inhibited the transcript responses to chitosan.

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Hydrophobic Eutectic Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Applied to the Analysis of Pesticides in Wine

A green solvent-based DLLME/HPLC-MS method for the determination of 19 pesticides in wine samples has been developed. From the analysis of 11 commercial wines it was found that just in a bio sample the target compounds were not detectable or lower than quantification limit; as for the other samples, the most widespread and abundant pesticides were methoxyfenozide and boscalid, but their levels were much lower than the relative maximum residue levels.

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