Winemaking: “With One Stone, Two Birds”? A Holistic Review of the Bio-Functional Compounds, Applications and Health Benefits of Wine and Wineries’ By-Products

The paper titled “Winemaking: ‘With One Stone Two Birds’? A Holistic Review of the Bio-Functional Compounds, Applications and Health Benefits of Wine and Wineries’ By-Products” provides a comprehensive review of the health benefits and applications of bio-functional compounds found in wine and by-products of wineries. It explores the nutritional value, bio-functional components, and health-promoting properties of these compounds, particularly their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects. The paper also discusses the beneficial effects of moderate wine consumption as part of a balanced diet and examines the potential of wineries’ by-products in developing functional foods, supplements, and nutraceuticals. Limitations and future perspectives of these bioactive compounds are also addressed.

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Kinetics of aroma formation from grape-derived precursors: Temperature effects and predictive potential

This study examined the accumulation and degradation of aroma molecules resulting from the acid hydrolysis of aroma precursors in winemaking grapes. It utilizes a first-order kinetic model to effectively describe both processes. This study categorizes grape-derived aroma molecules into three groups based on their stability through experiments conducted at three different temperatures. The analysis of 12 samples from two grape varieties subjected to hydrolysis at varying temperatures confirmed that fast hydrolysis at 75°C accurately reproduced varietal and between-sample aroma differences. Additionally, the study found a strong correlation between the accumulated levels of 21 relevant grape-derived aromas at 75°C and 50°C, indicating that fast hydrolysis at 75°C is a reliable predictor of grape aroma potential.

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A key to wine conservation lies in the glass–cork interface

Discover the key to preserving the exquisite flavors of premium wines! In a groundbreaking study published in PNAS Nexus, researchers delve into the glass–cork interface, unraveling the mysteries of oxygen entry during long-term wine aging.
The study, led by Julie Chanut et al., explores the evolution of oxygen barrier properties in the bottleneck–stopper system over 24 months. Surprisingly, temperature and bottle position (vertical or horizontal) don’t impact the intrinsic oxygen diffusion of microagglomerated corks. However, storing wines at higher temperatures accelerates oxygen transfer at the glass–cork interface after specific periods.

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Effects of Global Warming on Grapevine Berries Phenolic Compounds—A Review

As autumn heat reaches unprecedented levels, a groundbreaking study delves into the impact of climate change on phenolic compounds in grapevine berries. These findings challenge traditional winemaking norms, emphasizing the need for tailored approaches to combat climate challenges. The study advocates for a nuanced, “single case” perspective, recognizing the diversity of grapevine environments. Standardizing treatments across different cultivars, legislations, and regions is impractical. Instead, the focus has shifted to individual vineyards, embracing the concept of terroir, where unique natural, physical, and climatic conditions influence wine characteristics. This flexible approach encourages winegrowers and consumers to appreciate each vintage’s distinctiveness. By acknowledging and adapting to climatic changes, winemaking can evolve and foster innovative techniques and novel taste experiences. Resisting the urge for uniformity might simply unlock new dimensions in the wine world.

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DNA-based micro-total analysis system, a breakthrough in wine traceability and authenticity

For the first time, it was presented a DNA-based analytic tool for grapevine varietal discrimination using an integrated portable biosensor based on a monolayer graphene field-effect transistor array. The system comprises a wafer-scale fabricated graphene chip operated under liquid gating and connected to a miniaturized electronic readout. The platform can distinguish closely related grapevine varieties, thanks to specific DNA probes immobilized on the sensor, demonstrating high specificity even for discriminating single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which is hard to achieve with a classical end-point polymerase chain reaction or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The reported biosensor provides a promising way toward developing decentralized analytical tools for tracking wine authenticity at different points of the food value chain, enabling data transmission and contributing to the digitalization of the agro–food industry.

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The enigm of natural wines: a first step to shed light on them

Natural wine (NW) lacks an official or agreed definition, but it can be generally described as wine produced with organic or biodynamic grapes with minimal intervention in the cellar, and with minimal or no use of oenological additives. The present study aimed to test the hypotheses that self-defined NWs differ from conventional wines (CW) in their chemical composition and main sensory characteristics. The levels of conventional oenological parameters, turbidity, biogenic amines, ochratoxin A, ethyl carbamate, sulphites, chlorides, some metals, major, trace and Strecker aldehyde volatile compounds were determined in 28 wines, including natural and conventional Spanish commercial white wines. Wines were also sensory described following a labelled free sorting task.

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Alcoholic and non-alcoholic rosé wines made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii probiotic yeast

The production of alcoholic and non-alcoholic rosé wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii probiotic yeast is described in this study for the first time. The outcomes revealed that the rosé wine made with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii had the same values and preliminary sensory characteristics as other commercial wines made with S. cerevisiae EC-1118. The S. cerevisiae var. boulardii yeast successfully survived the high alcohol level produced during fermentation and vacuum distillation. The study also revealed that this unique rosé wine retains its probiotic viability for at least 6 months when stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator, making it a suitable candidate for large-scale production where long storage intervals are required by both producers and consumers.

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Effect of mannoproteins from different oenological yeast on pigment composition and color stability of red wine

In this work, MP-rich extracts from Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts were obtained by cell sonication and were characterized. The extracts were added to a red wine and color and pigment composition modifications were evaluated by CIELAB parameters and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively, after cold treatment (to provoke colloidal instability) and storage at room temperature (to accelerate wine aging). Results indicate that the MP-rich extracts showed differences in their composition and in the structure of the MPs depending on the yeast species. They also had different effects on the stability of wine pigments, being the extract obtained from Torulaspora delbrueckii the one that provided the best results, by contributing to the colloidal and chemical stability of the coloring matter. Wines added with this extract showed concentrations of p-coumaroylated and caffeoylated anthocyanins 33.40% higher than the control wine after 4 days of storage at 4 °C.

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Hydrophobic Eutectic Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Applied to the Analysis of Pesticides in Wine

A green solvent-based DLLME/HPLC-MS method for the determination of 19 pesticides in wine samples has been developed. From the analysis of 11 commercial wines it was found that just in a bio sample the target compounds were not detectable or lower than quantification limit; as for the other samples, the most widespread and abundant pesticides were methoxyfenozide and boscalid, but their levels were much lower than the relative maximum residue levels.

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Effect of the addition of soluble polysaccharides from red and white grape skins on the polyphenolic composition and sensory properties of Tempranillo red wines

This post summarizes the results of a study in which soluble polysaccharides from white and red grape skins were obtained to be evaluated as potential modulators of the unbalanced astringency of a Tempranillo red wine. The modulation of astringency was evaluated by a sensory panel, and it seemed to be related to the changes in the polyphenolic profile.

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